Libre opinion

Dr Christian Spieker : L´Afrique a un problème sérieux. Que valent encore les constitutions dans nos pays?

On apprend que le président Idriss Déby est mort au front pour défendre l´intégrité de son pays face aux rebelles. Bravo pour lui. On loue son courage. Mais le problème ne se situe pas là.

La question que je me pose et que tout citoyen africain soucieux de l´avancement de l´Afrique peut se poser est de savoir si les constitutions en Afrique ont-elles encore une valeur supra-juridique ?

Aussitôt le père est mort, aussitôt le fils le remplace. Que dit la Constitution tchadienne en ce sens ?
A-t-elle prévu que si le père, président est décédé, c´est le fils qui va le remplacer ou comment ?
Ceci ne constitue-t-il pas aussi un coup d´État constitutionnel ? Que dira l´Union africaine ?
Réagira-t-elle ? Ou bien nous dira-t-on que c´est une situation exceptionnelle à laquelle le Tchad fait face actuellement ? Autant de questions qui se posent sans réponse.

Le gros problème africain est qu´on n´est pas légaliste. On a toujours du mal à respecter les lois qu´on se fait voter et souvent même par l´initiative du pouvoir exécutif lui-même et c´est ce même pouvoir exécutif qui les viole ou par les généraux dans l´armée du pays pour imposer le fils du président en cas du décès de ce dernier. A-t-on besoin de citer d´autres exemples ici ? Pas du tout car tout le monde le sait.

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À quoi servent encore les lois dans nos pays africains ? Puisque si les faits se produisaient réellement tels que prévus dans les constitutions, c´est le contraire qui se mettra en place. C´est très triste pour ce continent, pourtant regorgé de richesses qui pourraient contribuer à son développement.

On a vu comment l´Union Afrique et la CEDEAO ont procédé pour refuser à la junte militaire malienne qui a fait le coup d´État au Mali, de conduire la transition. On verra si la même UA va réagir avec la même vigueur dans le cas du Tchad pour contester le fils du président Idriss Déby à qui l´armée a confié le pouvoir, ou bien on va le laisser faire. L´Afrique souffre énormément. À quand cela prendra-t-il fin, ce fléau en Afrique ?

Le peu qu´on puisse dire, c´est un coup dur pour la France car, bien qu´Idriss Déby ait brigué le 6è mandat, qu´il a remporté haut la main ces élections, la France l´a trouvé normal car la sécurité vaut mieux que la démocratie à ses yeux. Mais, peut-il y avoir la sécurité sans démocratie ? C´est toute la question que nous devons nous poser en Afrique.

Comment peut-on avoir la stabilité dans un pays si la Loi fondamentale sur laquelle reposent toutes les institutions du pays n´est pas respectée ? L´Afrique a un gros problème. Tant qu´on n´arrive pas à résoudre le problème du respect des lois dans nos pays, rien ne marchera. Il y aura toujours de crise en crise.


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