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USA/‘’Independence Day’’ : que célèbrent les Américains ce 04 juillet ?

Le 4 juillet 2022 marque le 246ième anniversaire de l’indépendance des États-Unis d’Amérique. C’est un jour spécial pour les Américains. Un peu partout dans ce pays, en ce rare jour férié et payé, l’heure sera à la fête, avec des parades géantes, des concours insolites, des barbecues, des matchs de baseball, des pique-niques et des feux d’artifices au menu.

Depuis, en ce jour férié (et rémunéré depuis 1941), on célèbre l’amour de la patrie et l’un des mythes fondateurs, le fameux « rêve américain ». À l’époque, nul ne pouvait prévoir la prodigieuse ascension de la jeune république qui s’est élevée, en à peine un siècle et demi, au rang de grande puissance mondiale.

Pourquoi le 4 juillet ?
Un vent de liberté soufflait en Philadelphie dès le début du mois de juillet 1776. La décision de rompre toutes relations politiques avec l’empire britannique fut prise en quatre jours par les 50 membres du deuxième congrès.

Le jour de l’indépendance en anglais ‘’Independence Day’’, encore connu sous le nom 4 juillet (July 4 ou Fourth of July), est la fête nationale des Etats-Unis d’Amérique. Elle est commémorée en mémoire de la Déclaration d’indépendance du 4 juillet 1776, vis-à-vis de la Grande Bretagne et célèbre l’histoire du pays, son gouvernement et ses traditions.
Bien que ce jour soit une icône dans l’histoire des Américains, il est important de noter que les luttes contre les britanniques ont vu le jour dès Avril 1775. La première motion concernant l’indépendance a été faite le 4 juin 1776 au Congrès continental. A l’issu des débats, le congrès vota de façon unanime l’indépendance vis-à-vis de la Grande Bretagne le 2 juillet. Cette décision connue comme La Lee Resolution resta secrète par peur de représailles britanniques. Thomas Jefferson fut désigné à ce congrès pour rédiger une ébauche de déclaration. Celui-ci soumis une version finale de son travail dès le 28 juin afin qu’elle puisse faire l’objet d’un débat général le lundi suivant, lequel était le 1ier juillet 1776.Cette ébauche fut à nouveau travaillée jusqu’au 4 juillet 1776 à 11 heures quand 13 colonies votèrent pour son adoption. Par cette déclaration d’indépendance, les 13 colonies britanniques ont fait sécession donnant naissance aux Etats-Unis d’Amérique.
L’une des importantes lignes de cette déclaration est : « Tous les hommes sont créés égaux » et « doués par le Créateur de certains droits inaliénables » à « la vie, la liberté et le recherche du bonheur ». En ces mots résident les raisons pour lesquelles l’Amérique souhaitaient rompre tous liens avec la couronne britannique.

Pour la grande histoire, voici les éminents auteurs de la déclaration d’indépendance des Etats-Unis d’Amérique : Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794), Robert R. Livingston (1746-1813), Roger Sherman (1721-1793), Samuel Adams (1722-1803), Button Gwinnett (1735-1777), William Ellery ( 1727-1820), Samuel Chase (1741-1811), John Hancock (1737-1793), Josiah Bartlett (1729-1795), Robert Treat Paine (1731-1814), Thomas Nelson Junior (1738-1789), William Hooper (1742-1790), Thomas McKean (1734-1817).

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Le 4 juillet est déclaré férié et payé depuis 1941.

En ce jour l’Amérique célèbre l’amour de la patrie et l’un des mythes fondateurs, le fameux ‘’rêve américain’’.
A l’époque, personne ne pouvait s’imaginer la prodigieuse émergence de la jeune république qui s’est hissée en moins d’un siècle et demi au rang de super-puissance mondiale.

SOH Essozolim Victorien

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