ÉconomieMonde

C’est quoi le pétrodollar? Et qu’est ce qui fait la force du dollar américain

Qu’est ce qui fait la force du dollar américain

Le dollar américain jouit actuellement du statut convoité de monnaie de réserve mondiale

Le dollar américain jouit actuellement du statut convoité de monnaie de réserve mondiale (monnaie que toutes les banques centrales doivent posséder) , le pétrole étant acheté à un puissant cartel connu sous le nom de Organisation des pays exportateurs de pétrole (OPEP) et libellé en dollar américain.

Historique du Pétrodollar

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Le pétrodollar est un dollar américain versé aux pays exportateurs de pétrole en échange de pétrole. Comme le dollar est une monnaie mondiale, toutes les transactions internationales sont libellées en dollars. En conséquence, les pays exportateurs de pétrole doivent recevoir des dollars.

Réagissant à l’aide américaine à Israël, l’OPEP, riche en ressources, a imposé un embargo pétrolier sur tous ceux qui avaient aidé Israël, notamment les États-Unis, la Grande-Bretagne, le Canada, le Japon, les Pays-Bas et plus tard l’Afrique du Sud et le Portugal. En 1974, le prix du pétrole a quadruplé.

Avec le succès de l’embargo et le nouveau rôle du cartel en tant qu’influenceur du prix du pétrole, l’Arabie Saoudite est devenue le chef de facto de l’OPEP

En 1974, cherchant désespérément à donner de la valeur au dollar américain, le président Nixon et le secrétaire d’État Kissinger ont entamé des négociations avec la famille royale saoudienne. Dans l’accord, les États-Unis fourniraient des armes à l’Arabie saoudite et aideraient à la protection des champs pétrolifères. En échange, l ‘Arabie saoudite devait fixer le prix de toutes les ventes de pétrole en dollars américains et investir le revenu excédentaire du pétrole dans des titres de créance américains. En 1975, tous les membres de l’OPEP producteurs de pétrole ont emboîté le pas. Cela a commencé le règne du pétrodollar.

Nous croyons qu’une fois que vous aurez compris cet arrangement «dollars pour le pétrole (système pétrodollar) », vous comprendrez mieux ce qui fait le puissance des États-Unis dans le commerce international et sa politique étrangère

Selon un article de bloomberg :

Le cadre de base était étonnamment simple. Les États-Unis achèteraient du pétrole à l’Arabie saoudite et fourniraient au royaume l’aide et l’équipement militaires. En retour, les Saoudiens réinvestiraient des milliards de leurs revenus de pétrodollars dans les bons du Trésor et financeraient les dépenses de l’Amérique.

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