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Mali : De vastes réservoirs d’hydrogène gazeux découverts

De hydrogène gazeux découvert au Mali

Au Mali, découverte de vastes réservoirs d’hydrogène gazeux, inflammable de la terre, qui produit des charges d’électricité sans émission de CO2.

La ville appelée Bourakébougou a été prospectée par l’entrepreneur énergétique malien Aliou Diallo, qui croyait que le gaz mystérieux qui le jour brillait d’une couleur bleue comme l’eau scintillante de l’océan, et la nuit comme une poussière dorée, pouvait représenter une fortune.

En 2012, il a recruté Chapman Petroleum pour déterminer ce qu’était le gaz. C’était 98% d’hydrogène. Des mois plus tard, la société Petroma de Diallo avait installé une unité pilote pour transformer le gaz en électricité qui produisait de l’eau comme produit d’échappement, et transformait le village en un village avec une électricité fiable et abondante.

Au cours de la décennie qui a suivi, la conviction qu’une source d’énergie naturelle potentielle inépuisable et à zéro émission a poussé les scientifiques et les sociétés énergétiques à passer à l’action, parcourant les universités et le monde pour plus d’informations sur les réservoirs souterrains d’hydrogène.

En 2018, une équipe scientifique a publié un article sur le puits d’hydrogène de Bourakébougou, qui concluait à partir de preuves obtenues à partir d’une douzaine de puits d’exploration à proximité qu’il était « possible de confirmer la présence d’un vaste champ d’hydrogène comportant au moins cinq intervalles de réservoirs empilés contenant hydrogène important qui couvre une superficie estimée bien supérieure à 8 km de diamètre.

Google 1

De plus, l’étude a révélé que l’estimation actuelle de son prix d’exploitation est beaucoup moins cher que l’hydrogène manufacturé, soit à partir de combustibles fossiles, soit par électrolyse.

On a longtemps cru, une caractéristique des détails du magazine Science, que les réservoirs d’hydrogène gazeux étaient extrêmement rares. Il est rare de les trouver dans des endroits où les sociétés énergétiques forent pour le pétrole et le gaz naturel, c’est vrai, mais si l’on sait où chercher, ils sont plus courants.

L’un de ces endroits sont les «cratons» de la Terre, les parties les plus anciennes et les plus stables des plaques tectoniques. Certains continents ont plus d’un craton, d’autres comme le craton nord-américain, sont beaucoup plus grands et couvrent ainsi la majeure partie du continent.

Contrairement au pétrole et au gaz qui ont besoin de milliers d’années pour se former à partir de la matière organique en décomposition, l’hydrogène gazeux est constamment produit sous terre car l’eau interagit avec les minéraux de fer à des pressions et des températures élevées.

Parmi ces minéraux de fer se trouve l’olivine, qui, par une réaction chimique appelée serpentinisation, vole une molécule d’oxygène de l’eau percolant de la surface de la Terre pour transformer l’olivine en serpentinite et l’eau en hydrogène gazeux.

Les gisements d’olivine sont les plus riches en une caractéristique souterraine et cratonique appelée « ceinture verte ». On pense que ces ceintures vertes, en raison de leur forte concentration d’olivine, agissent comme le moteur à gaz hydrogène de la Terre.

Actuellement, les puits maliens pourraient produire de l’hydrogène gazeux à 50 cents le kilo, soit un dixième du coût de l’hydrogène créé par électrolyse avec des énergies solaires, éoliennes, géothermiques ou autres énergies vertes.

Ian Munro, PDG d’Helios Aragon, une startup à la recherche d’hydrogène dans les contreforts des Pyrénées espagnoles, a déclaré à Science que son seuil de rentabilité pourrait se situer entre 50 et 70 cents, ajoutant que cela révolutionnerait la production d’énergie.

Quant à Diallo, il a lancé une nouvelle société appelée Hydroma, qui produit désormais de l’électricité pour la région via le réservoir d’hydrogène, et envisage de l’utiliser comme moyen de créer de l’hydrogène vert par électrolyse.

via GoodNewsNetwork

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