Il y a 60 ans à Addis-Abeba, naissait l’OUA l’ancêtre de l’UA

L’Organisation de l’unité africaine (OUA), ancêtre de l’Union africaine (UA) célèbre ses noces de diamant.

L’Organisation de l’unité africaine (OUA) – l’ancêtre de l’Union africaine – voyait le jour à Addis-Abeba en Ethiopie il y a 60 ans jour pour jour. Un moment marquant dans l’histoire de l’intégration africaine. Ce jour-là, 32 chefs d’État et de gouvernements parviennent enfin à se rassembler et à s’entendre autour d’un projet commun. Ils signent dans la nuit du 25 au 26 mai la charte de l’unité africaine. 

A l’époque personne ne pariait sur la possibilité que les 32 dirigeants parviennent à se mettre d’accord sur un projet commun pour faire avancer le continent. Chose qui est finalement arrivée avec la signature de la charte de l’unité africaine, fondant l’OUA.

L’institution ainsi mise en place insiste sur l’égalité souveraine des États membres, la non-ingérence et le respect de l’intégrité territoriale. Et vise à favoriser l’unité, la solidarité de l’Afrique et combattre le colonialisme, etc.

« Cette union, nous devons la réaliser, sans sacrifier nécessairement nos diverses souverainetés, grandes ou petites, exhorte le président ghanéen. Nous devons nous unir afin de réaliser la libération intégrale de notre continent », a déclaré à la tribune, Kwame Nkrumah, le président du Ghana, l’un des chantres du panafricanisme.

Le 25 mai, Hubert Maga, le président béninois, salue officiellement la naissance de cette toute nouvelle OUA : « La Conférence au sommet des chefs d’États et de gouvernements africains indépendants, heureux de la réussite totale de cette conférence qui comble les espoirs d’unité si longtemps caressés par les peuples africains, exprime sa profonde gratitude à sa majesté impériale Hailé Sélassié 1er au gouvernement et au peuple d’Éthiopie dont le rôle déterminant a contribué à la concrétisation de l’unité africaine par la naissance de l’Organisation de l’unité africaine ».  

60 ans après quel bilan peut-on en dresser ?

L’organisation a fait du chemin selon Cheikh Tiadine Gadio, ancien chef de la diplomatie sénégalaise, aujourd’hui président de l’Institut panafricain de stratégie « paix, sécurité, gouvernance ».

Malheureusement elle n’a jamais réussi à créer les « Etats-Unis d’Afrique » comme ses pères fondateurs l’ont souhaité et voulu, cause, déplore M. Gadio de « l’hyper-balkanisation » du continent.

Avec iciLome/RFI



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